Validation of Computer Simulations from a Kuhnian Perspective

von Eckhart Arnold

1 Introduction
2 Kuhn's philosophy of science
3 A revolution, but not a Kuhnian revolution: Computer simulations in science
4 Validation of Simulations from a Kuhnian perspective
5 Summary and Conclusions
Bibliography

Bibliography

  1. (Ahrweiler/Gilbert:2015) Ahrweiler, Petra and Nigel Gilbert. 2015. The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research Policy Modelling. Cham: Springer International Publishing pp. 35-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2_3
  2. (Arnold:2013c) Arnold, Eckhart. 2013b. Experiments and Simulations: Do They Fuse? In Computer Simulations and the Changing Face of Scientific Experimentation, ed. Eckhart Arnold and Juan Duran. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing pp. 46-75.
  3. (Arnold:2014) Arnold, Eckhart. 2014. “What's wrong with Social Simulations?” The Monist 97(3):361-379. monist.oxfordjournals.org/content/97/3/359
  4. (Axelrod:1984) Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books.
  5. (Axtell et al.:2002) Axtell, Robert L., Joshua M. Epstein, Jeffrey S. Dean, George J. Gumerman, Alan C. Swedlund, Jason Harburger, Shubha Chakravarty, Ross Hammond, Jon Parker and Miles Parker. 2002. “Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(suppl 3):7275-7279. www.pnas.org/content/99/suppl_3/7275
  6. (Beisbart:2011) Beisbart, Claus. 2011. A Transformation of Normal Science. unpublished.
  7. (Beisbart:2019) Beisbart, Claus. 2019. What Is a Computer Simulation and What Does This Mean for Simulation Validation? In Verification and Validation, ed. Claus Beisbart and Nicole J. Saam. chapter 37.
  8. (Binmore:1994) Binmore, Ken. 1994. Game Theory and the Social Contract I. Playing Fair. Fourth printing (2000) ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts / London, England: MIT Press.
  9. (Binmore:1998) Binmore, Ken. 1998. Game Theory and the Social Contract II. Just Playing. Cambridge, Massachusetts / London, England: MIT Press.
  10. (Bird:2013) Bird, Alexander. 2013. Thomas Kuhn. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2013 ed. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  11. (Cartwright:1983) Cartwright, N. and Oxford University Press. 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie. Clarendon paperbacks Clarendon Press. https://books.google.de/books?id=lIQKFs0_s18C
  12. (Carusi et al.:2013) Carusi, Annamaria, Blanca Rodriguez and Kevin Burrage. 2013. Model Systems in Computational Systems Biology. chapter 6.
  13. (Cohen et al.:1972) Cohen, M.D., J.G. March and J.P. Olsen. 1972. “A Grabage Can Model of Organizational Choide.” Administrative Science Quarterly 17:1-25.
  14. (Delgoshaei:2013) Delgoshaei, Bahareh and Msoud Fatahi. 2013. “Garbage Can Decision-Making in a Matrix Structure.”. www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:636820/FULLTEXT01.pdf
  15. (Dugatkin:1997) Dugatkin, Lee Alan. 1997. Cooperation among Animals. Oxford University Press.
  16. (Dupre:1994) Dupré, John. 1994. “Against Scientific Imperialism.” Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings (2):374-381. cogprints.org/342/1/IMPERIA.htm
  17. (Epstein:2008) Epstein, Joshua M. 2008. “Why Model?” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 11(4):12. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/11/4/12.html
  18. (Epstein/Axtell:1996) Epstein, Joshua M. and Robert L. Axtell. 1996. Growing Artificial Societies. MIT Press.
  19. (Fardal/Sornes:2008) Fardal, Harald and Jan Oddvar Sørnes. 2008. “IS Strategic Decision-Making. A Garbage Can View.” Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology 5.
  20. (Feyerabend:1975) Feyerabend, Paul. 1975/1983. Wider den Methodenzwang. Suhrkamp Verlag.
  21. (Fioretti:2008) Fioretti, Guido and Alessandro Lomi. 2008. “An Agent-Based Representation of the Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 11(1):1. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/11/1/1.html
  22. (Gilbert/Troitzsch:2005) Gilbert, Nigel and Klaus Troitzsch. 2005. Simulation for the Social Scientist. New York: Open University Press.
  23. (Gleick:2011) Gleick, James. 2011. Chaos: Making a New Science. Open Road Media.
  24. (Groetker:2005) Grötker, Ralf. 2005. “Reine Meinungsmache.”. www.heise.de/tr/artikel/Reine-Meinungsmache-277359.html
  25. (Guala:2002) Guala, Francesco. 2002. Models, simulations and experiments. In Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values, ed. Lorenzo Magnani and Nancy Nersessian. Kluwer Acacdemic Publishers pp. 59-74.
  26. (Hammerstein:2003) Hammerstein, Peter. 2003. Why Is Reciprocity So Rare in Social Animals? A Protestant Appeal. In Genetic and Cultural Evolution, ed. Peter Hammerstein. Cambridge, Massachusetts / London, England: MIT Press in cooperation with Dahlem University Press chapter 5, pp. 83-94.
  27. (Harding et al.:2010) Harding, Ann, Marcia Keegan and Simon Kelly. 2010. “Validating a dynamic population microsimulation model: Recent experience in Australia.” International Journal of Microsimulation 3(2):46-64.
  28. (Harding:1976) Harding, Sandra G., ed. 1976. Can Theories Be Refuted? kluwer.
  29. (Hartmann:1996) Hartmann, Stephan. 1996. The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences. In Simulation and Modelling in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View, ed. Rainer Hegselmann et al. pp. 77-110. philsci-archive.pitt.edu/2412/
  30. (Heath et al.:2009) Heath, Brian, Raymond Hill and Frank Ciarallo. 2009. “A Survey of Agent-Based Modeling Practices (January 1998 to July 2008).” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation (JASSS) 12(4):9. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/12/4/9.html
  31. (Hegselmann/Krause:2002) Hegselmann, Rainer and Ulrich Krause. 2002. “Opinion dynamics and bounded confidence: models, analysis and simulation.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 5(3):1. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/5/3/2.html
  32. (Imbert:2017) Imbert, Cyrille. 2017. Computer simulations and computational models in science. In Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science, ed. Lorenzo Magnani and Thomas Bertolotti. pp. 735-781. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281319238
  33. (Kornmesser:2014) Kornmesser, Stephan. 2014. “Scientific Revolutions without Paradigm-Replacement and the Coexistence of Competing Paradigms: The Case of Generative Grammar and Construction Grammar.” Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45(1):91-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10838-013-9227-3
  34. (Kuhn:1976) Kuhn, Thomas S. 1976. Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen. Suhrkamp.
  35. (Kuhn:1977) Kuhn, Thomas S. 1977. The Essential Tension. The University of Chicago Press.
  36. (Arnold/Kaestner:2013) Kästner, Johannes and Eckhart Arnold. 2013. When can a Computer Simulation act as Substitute for an Experiment? A Case-Study from Chemisty. In Homepage Eckhart Arnold, ed. Eckhart Arnold. preprint. https://eckhartarnold.de/papers/2013_Simulations_as_Virtual_Experiments/Simulations_as_Virtual_Experiments.html
  37. (Lenhard:2007) Lenhard, Johannes. 2007. “.” Philosophy of Science 74(2):176-194.
  38. (Lenhard:2019) Lenhard, Johannes. 2019. How Does Holism Challenge the Validation of Computer Simulation? In Verification and Validation, ed. Claus Beisbart and Nicole J. Saam. chapter 39.
  39. (Morgan/Morrison:1999) Models as Mediators. 1999.
  40. (Morgan:2003) Morgan, Mary S. 2003. Experiments without Material Intervention. Model Experiments, Virtual Experiments, and virtually Experiments. In The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation, ed. Hans Radder. University of Pittsburgh Press pp. 216-233.
  41. (Morrison:2009) Morrison, Margaret. 2009. “Models, measurement and computer simulation: the changing face of experimentation.” Philosophical Studies 143:33-57.
  42. (Moses/Knutsen:2012) Moses, Jonthon W. and Torbj rn L. Knutsen. 2012. Ways of Knowing. Competing Methodologies in Social and Political Research. 2nd (first edition 2007) ed. London: palgrave macmillen.
  43. (Murray/Smith:2019) Murray-Smith, David J. 2019. Verification and Validation. In Computer Simulation Validation, ed. Claus Beisbart and Nicole J. Saam. chapter 4.
  44. (Osullivan et al.:2016) O'Sullivan, David, Tom Evans, Steven Manson, Sara Metcalf, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska and Chris Bone. 2016. “Short Communication.” Journal of Land Use Science 11(2):177-187.
  45. (Parker:2009) Parker, Wendy S. 2009. “Does matter really matter? Computer simulations, experiments, and materiality.” Synthese 169:483-496.
  46. (Peschard:2011b) Peschard, Isabelle. 2011. “Review of Eric Winsberg's “Science in the Age of Computer Simulation”.” Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews .
  47. (Phelps:2016) Phelps, Steve. 2016. “An Empirical Game-Theoretic Analysis of the Dynamics of Cooperation in Small Groups.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 19(2):4. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/19/2/4.html
  48. (Preston:2016) Preston, John. 2016. Paul Feyerabend. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Winter 2016 ed. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  49. (Railsback/Grimm:2012) Railsback, Steven F. and Volker Grimm. 2012. Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling. Princeton University Press.
  50. (Rendell et al.:2010a) Rendell, Luke, R. Boyd, D. Cownden, M. Enquist, K. Eriksson, M.W. Feldman, L. Fogarty, S. Ghirlanda, T. Lillicrap and Kevin N. Laland. 2010. “Why Copy Others? Insights from the Social Learning Strategies Tournament.” Science 328:208-213. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/328/5975/208
  51. (Reutlinger et al.:2017) Reutlinger, Alexander, Dominik Hangleiter and Stephan Hartmann. 2017. “Understanding (with) Toy Models.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science p. axx005. dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axx005
  52. (Schelling:1971) Schelling, Thomas C. 1971. “Dynamic models of segregation†.” The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 1(2):143-186. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0022250X.1971.9989794
  53. (Schurz:2014) Schurz, Gerhard. 2014. Koexistenz und Komplementarit"at rivalisierender Paradigmen: Analyse, Diagnose und kulturwissenschaftliches Fallbeispiel. In Die multiparadigmatische Struktur der Wissenschaften, ed. Stephan Kornmesser and Gerhard Schurz. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden pp. 47-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-00672-3_2
  54. (Sismondo:2007) Sismondo, Sergio. 2010. An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies. 2 ed. Wiley and Sons.
  55. (Squazzoni/Casnici:2013) Squazzoni, Flaminio and Niccolò Casnici. 2013. “Is Social Simulation a Social Science Outstation? A Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of JASSS.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16(1):10. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/16/1/10.html
  56. (Winsberg:2003) Winsberg, Eric. 2003. “Simulated Experiments: Methodology for a Virtual World.” Philosophy of Science 70:105-125.
  57. (Winsberg:2009) Winsberg, Eric. 2009. “A tale of two methods.” Synthese 169:575-592.
  58. (Winsberg:2015) Winsberg, Eric. 2015. Computer Simulations in Science. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Summer 2015 ed. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

t g+ f @